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Global Climate Change

By: 999Ai2016 , 4:18 AM GMT on November 07, 2016

Source : The New World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness (2016).


This is actually two blogs in one.

* This part is dedicated mainly to an exploration of the planet and its environmental issues in light of the ongoing human-induced climate change (sometimes with the help of satellite pictures), you're also welcome to leave comments on this topic. However, I reserve the right to delete any comment involving "denial, dismissal, unwarranted doubt or contrarian views which depart from the scientific opinion on climate change (...)"
(a.k.a. "climate change denial").

* My other blog (link below) is dedicated to archiving science-based articles, also news articles on the same topic, from different internet sources which I deem reliable (some listed below).

(!) You can access the articles, reports and news I regularly highlight on my previous blog by clicking this link and scrolling through the comments section there:

*** Climate Change by 999Ai2016 ***
!!! May take some time to load !!!

* You may leave comments about these here.

Glaciers are losing mass in the North Cascades, where Pelto's father has done work for decades monitoring glacier retreat and related changes. Annual glacier mass balance data is represented in the painting. Credit : Jill Pelto.

Large wildfires are happening more frequently and burning more area across the western U.S. in part due to rising temperatures. The global average temperature is shown between the flames and the forest. Credit : Jill Pelto.

Source: These Paintings Turn Climate Data Into Art
Climate Central - February 2016.

Northwest Pacific Ocean - September 2016. Click image to display larger version.
Source/credit : RAMMB-CIRA, JMA.


The Basics:

- NASA: Global Climate Change
"Vital Signs of the Planet."

- Climate Signals
"Explore how climate change affects your world by searching events, impacts, and related climate signals."

- Skeptical Science
"Explaining climate change science & rebutting global warming misinformation."

The News:

- Climate Central News

"Researching and reporting the science and impacts of climate change."

- Climate News Network
"Climate News Network is a free and objective service publishing a daily news story on climate and energy issues."

- Science Daily (topic: climate)
"Your source for the latest research news."

- ScienceAlert (topic: environment)
"ScienceAlert features cool and interesting science news and entertainment worth sharing."

- EOS (topic: climate change)
"Eos is the leading source for trustworthy news and perspectives about the Earth and space sciences and their impact"

- Climate Home
"Climate Change News."

- Carbon Brief
"We cover climate science and climate & energy policy, specialising in clear, data-driven articles to improve the understanding of climate change."

- Climate Feedback
"A Scientific Reference to Reliable Information on Climate Change."

- RSOE Climate Change Monitoring
"The Climate Change Monitoring Services (CCMS) is taking steps to bring this evidence to the public's attention, with the goal of building support for action to reduce the heat-trapping gas emissions that cause global warming."

The Perspective:

- Anthropocene Magazine

"We are a digital, print, and live magazine in which the world's most creative writers, designers, scientists, and entrepreneurs explore how we can create a sustainable human age we actually want to live in."

- Yale Climate Connections
"Listen. Watch. Read."

Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo.

- Elizabeth Kolbert / The New Yorker
"Elizabeth Kolbert has been a staff writer at The New Yorker since 1999. Her three-part series on global warming, "The Climate of Man," won the 2006 National Magazine Award for Public Interest, the 2005 American Association for the Advancement of Science Journalism Award, and the 2006 National Academies Communication Award."

Science Blogs:

- From a Glacier's Perspective
AGU Blog by Mauro Pelto.

- AGU Blogosphere
"A community of Earth and space science blogs, hosted by the American Geophysical Union."

- EGU Blogs
Blogs hosted by the European Geosciences Union.

Blogs & Forums:

- Neven's Arctic Sea Ice Blog

"Interesting News & Data."

- Real Climate
"Climate science from climate scientists."

* Need a good (science-based) laugh? Then you can pay a visit to this website, What if ? where Randall Munroe answers absurd physics-related question people ask him, with pencils & physics. See also his "xkcd comics"... ;-)

NASA archive : Typhoon Bopha (Western North Pacific Ocean).
This photo of Super Typhoon Bopha was taken on Sunday, Dec. 2, 2012 from the International Space Station, by Astronaut Ford as the Category 4 storm bore down on the Philippines with winds of 135 mph.

Credit: NASA ISS/JSC. CLICK HERE to download the extra-large version.

Filming the coral bleaching at Lizard Island. Credit : XL Catlin Seaview Survey.
Visit GLOBAL CORAL BLEACHING for more on this topic.

North Atlantic - Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly - December 06, 2015
Source : www.earth.nullschool.net

(!) You can access the articles, reports and news I regularly highlight on my previous blog by clicking this link/animation and scrolling through the comments section there:

*** Climate Change by 999Ai2016 ***
!!! May take some time to load !!!

Eye of Super Typhoon Meranti - September 13, 2016.
Source/credit : CIRA-RAMMB, JMA.

The views of the author are his/her own and do not necessarily represent the position of The Weather Company or its parent, IBM.

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55. 999Ai2016
3:12 PM GMT on February 15, 2017
*** It's more than just climate change
Phys.org - February 2017.

What Happens When That Enormous Antarctic Ice Shelf Finally Breaks?
Gizmodo - February 2017.

Rift in the Larsen C ice shelf photographed by NASA's IceBridge aerial survey in November 2016. Image: NASA/John Sonntag.

*** Beach bashing: Last year's El Nino resulted in unprecedented erosion of Pacific coastline
Science Daily - February 2017.


Last winter's El Nino might have felt weak to residents of Southern California, but it was in fact one of the most powerful climate events of the past 145 years. If such severe El Nino events become more common in the future as some studies suggest they might, the California coast -- home to more than 25 million people -- may become increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards. And that's independent of projected sea level rise.

Canadian glaciers now major contributor to sea level change, UCI study shows
UCI News - February 2017.

From 2005 to 2015, surface melt off ice caps and glaciers of the Queen Elizabeth Islands grew by an astonishing 900 percent, from an average of three gigatons to 30 gigatons per year, according to results published today in the journal Environmental Research Letters


*** Sea Ice Hits Record Lows at Both Poles
Climate Central - February 2017.

(...) Antarctic sea ice set an all-time record low on Monday in a dramatic reversal from the record highs of recent years.

An Arctic Summer: Boring Through the Pack in Melville Bay

Detail from An Arctic Summer: Boring Through the Pack in Melville Bay by William Bradford, 1871.

Humans causing climate to change 170 times faster than natural forces
The Guardian - February 2017.

*** Scientists have just detected a major change to the Earth's oceans linked to a warming climate
The Washington Post - February 2017.

Climate Change Has Already Harmed Almost Half of All Mammals
Scientific American - February 2017.


*** California Forests Failing to Regrow After Intense Wildfires
Inside Climate News - December 2016.

Alistair Jump, a forest ecologist in the U.K. who has studied forests on three continents, said recent forest die-offs around the world should be seen as part of a global forest crisis. The massive changes aren't just a symptom of climate change -- they could drive changes in the global carbon cycle that would speed the buildup of heat-trapping pollution.

In the Sierras, New Approaches to Protecting Forests Under Stress
Yale Environment 360 - Feb. 13.


Making a Difference
NASA Global Climate Change / Vital Signs of the Planet - February 2017.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
54. 999Ai2016
3:10 PM GMT on February 15, 2017
Quoting 53. BaltimoreBrian:

I've been thinking about getting a new handle - Brian Bellegueule. Maybe go by that when I retire in La Nouvelle-Caledonie. What do you think? :)

:-) Brian Bellegueule... Sounds good - literally. The locals will probably like it.

Quoting 52. BaltimoreBrian:

French Presidential Candidate Emmanuel Macron Courts US Climate Experts

Macron's words are typical of a politician running for elections, I think he's mainly trying to bolster his international standing a bit there.
In spite of a (very) few outstanding laboratories regularly shining on the international stage, scientific research really is underfunded in France (at least that's what many researchers say, except maybe in the private sector and for more profitable things, like pharmacology for example - fundamental research and earth sciences are the parent pauvre everywhere it seems). Plus last time I checked there were more French scientists leaving for the U.S. to get better work conditions and career opportunities there than the opposite (don't know if that's true for climate science though). So he can make promises, but to turn the tide is not gonna be easy to say the least - that being said, promising more fundings for research is of course a good thing if he can deliver or at least if it can catch the attention of other policy-makers and in turn push them to adress these issues.
Unfortunately the timing wasn't optimal and it didn't quite make it to the front page here because of other events stealing the spotlight. Always the same problem: at the end of the day, short-sighted politics rule.
Also, he's got a long way to go before becoming the new president, and at the moment I'm not very optimistic he can beat Le Pen in May.


Oh, just out:

!!! Risk of rapid North Atlantic cooling in 21st century greater than previously estimated
Science Daily (Source: CNRS) - February 2017.

About this picture

The possibility of major climate change in the Atlantic region has long been recognized and has even been the subject of a Hollywood movie: The Day After Tomorrow. To evaluate the risk of such climate change, researchers developed a new algorithm to analyze the 40 climate models considered by the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Their findings raise the probability of rapid North Atlantic cooling during this century to nearly 50%.

See also comment #37 in my other blog, "Climate Change by 999Ai2016".
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
53. BaltimoreBrian
11:55 PM GMT on February 14, 2017
I've been thinking about getting a new handle - Brian Bellegueule. Maybe go by that when I retire in La Nouvelle-Cal├ędonie. What do you think? :)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
52. BaltimoreBrian
12:07 AM GMT on February 14, 2017
French Presidential Candidate Emmanuel Macron Courts US Climate Experts
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
51. 999Ai2016
2:21 PM GMT on February 10, 2017
*** NASA took on an unprecedented study of Greenland's melting. Now, the data are coming in
The Washington Post - February 2017.

"These kinds of results suggest that we could be in for more sea level rise than we thought," Willis said. "And we're not alone; the fact is that almost every time some new results come out of Greenland or Antarctica, we find these glaciers are more vulnerable than we thought."


barbamz, yeah they sure got it right :-D. I haven't watched the other videos featured on your blog, but I will someday. Indeed it's a great way to discover how different countries perceive themselves, and the U.S also.

BaltimoreBrian, I love that account. It did attract some attention, as you pointed out :-)
Interesting article also. Too bad that in many cases we have to wait several decades in order to be able to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural factors. Reminds me of the Gulf Stream slowdown, where the same caveat applies.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
50. BaltimoreBrian
2:24 AM GMT on February 10, 2017
*whistles innocently* What?

Hmmmmm ;)

For a little more information about this, read comment #1879 of my blog And pass it on :)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
49. BaltimoreBrian
2:04 AM GMT on February 10, 2017
Increase in the number of extremely strong fronts over Europe?
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
48. barbamz
12:51 AM GMT on February 09, 2017
They've got it right, lol?

France welcomes Trump in his own words
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
47. 999Ai2016
12:11 PM GMT on February 08, 2017
2017 ushers in record low extent
National Snow & Ice Data Center - February 2017.

Record low daily Arctic ice extents continued through most of January 2017, a pattern that started last October. Extent during late January remained low in the Kara, Barents and Bering Seas. Southern Hemisphere extent also tracked at record low levels for January; globally, sea ice cover remains at record low levels. Arctic sea ice extent for January 2017 averaged 13.38 million square kilometers (5.17 million square miles), the lowest January extent in the 38-year satellite record. (...)

In the Shadow of Trump's First Week, Climate Scientists Gather in Washington
Pacific Standard - February 2017.

Researchers at this week's conference discuss how Arctic sea ice is fundamentally changing air masses and weather systems in the Northern Hemisphere.

Think climate change is a hoax? Visit Norway
Climate Home - February 2017.

Environment minister says warm temperatures and low levels of Arctic sea ice are an early warning to world that climate change is biting. (...)
"What is happening now is a harbinger of things to come, we are seeing drastic changes," he tells Climate Home in an interview.
"One of our major glaciers is retreating one metre a day, two kilometres in five years. It's happening very fast and the world should take note.
"This will happen faster in the Arctic. We know a 2C rise in global average temperatures means up to 4C in the Arctic."
The unusual conditions should alarm all governments, he says, given the Arctic's influence on global weather patterns and the evolving links between climate change and issues such as conflict and migration. (...)

*** Arctic 2.0: What happens after all the ice goes?
Nature - February 2017.


*** Current climate change models understate the problem, scientists argue
Science Daily - February 2017.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
45. BaltimoreBrian
12:04 AM GMT on January 29, 2017
When Paris' sewers get clogged, they're cleaned the same way they were a century ago: with a giant, rolling ball

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
43. 999Ai2016
3:09 AM GMT on January 28, 2017
Latest glacier mass balance data
World Glacier Monitoring Service.

Figure 2: Mean cumulative mass balance of all reported glaciers (blue line) and the reference glaciers (red line). Image source: World Glacier Monitoring Service (see link above).

NASA - Vital Signs of the Planet:
About Glaciers & Global Ice Viewer


Quoting 42. BaltimoreBrian:

France's wild hamsters being turned into 'crazed cannibals' by diet of corn

That's downright creepy too, although it's a rather instructive story... Reminds me of this article in Anthropocene Magazine (yet, it would appear to me the evidence is more solid in linking the horrible fate of these wild hamsters to a nutritional deficiency than is currently the case with fish? But I'm no expert anyway...).
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
42. BaltimoreBrian
2:53 AM GMT on January 28, 2017
France's wild hamsters being turned into 'crazed cannibals' by diet of corn
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
41. barbamz
10:28 AM GMT on January 27, 2017
Quoting 40. 999Ai2016:

Screenshots made with pictures from
NASA Worldview

Great link, thank you!
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
40. 999Ai2016
7:10 PM GMT on January 26, 2017
*** Comment: Crazy times in the Arctic by Mark C. Serreze.
Earth Magazine - January 23, 2017.


Chile - Drought / Wildfires:

NASA Worldview - Terra/Modis (true color), January 26. Click picture to enlarge.

NASA Worldview - Terra/Modis (true color), January 26. Click picture to enlarge.

Screenshots made with pictures from
NASA Worldview
"Interactive interface for browsing full-resolution, global, near real-time satellite imagery."

* See also comment 28. NOT the latest news available, just some useful context for this event... And Jeff Masters' blog entry, "Dante's Inferno" in Chile: All-Time National Heat Record Smashed by 6 F (January 27, 2017).

Wildfire expert from Spain analyzes fires in Chile
Wildfire Today - Feb. 18.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
39. 999Ai2016
3:57 PM GMT on January 26, 2017
Climate spirals / Climate Lab Book (open climate science):
Animated climate spiral (global temperature change, 1850-2016) by Ed Hawkins:
---> CLICK FOR .GIF <---


Hat tip to RobertWC for surfacing this link on the Cat.6 blog:

*** Predicting where seas are rising fastest
Journalist's Ressources.

Atlantic City, New Jersey (2007). Image credit: Bob Jagendorf.


Climate Feedback:

*** Analysis of "U.S. scientists officially declare 2016 the hottest year on record.
That makes three in a row."

Published in The Washington Post, by Chris Mooney - 18 Jan. 2017.
Twelve scientists analyzed the article and estimated its overall scientific credibility to be 'very high'.

Image credit: NOAA.


Quoting 38. BaltimoreBrian:

European Environment Agency: Climate Change Poses Increasingly Severe Risks

Phew, this new report is huuuge, I'll never be able to read it in full... :o)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
38. BaltimoreBrian
4:42 AM GMT on January 26, 2017
European Environment Agency: Climate Change Poses Increasingly Severe Risks
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
37. 999Ai2016
4:01 AM GMT on January 26, 2017
The Cinematic Orchestra - Talking About Freedom (LateNightTales Cover):

Youtube link / Song lyrics
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
35. 999Ai2016
1:43 AM GMT on January 26, 2017
Apparently, this still needs to be reaffirmed from time to time (see also comment 14.):

*** Statements on Climate Change from Major Scientific Academies, Societies, and Associations
(January 2017 update)

ScienceBlogs / Peter Gleick - January 2017.

"The number and scope of these statements is truly impressive. Not a single major scientific organization or national academy of science on earth denies that the climate is changing, that humans are responsible, and that some form of action should be taken to address the risks to people and the planet." Peter Gleick.

American Geophysical Union
Adopted by the American Geophysical Union December 2003; Revised and Reaffirmed December 2007, February 2012, August 2013 (.pdf document)

Human-Induced Climate Change Requires Urgent Action

"Humanity is the major influence on the global climate change observed over the past 50 years. Rapid societal responses can significantly lessen negative outcomes. Human activities are changing Earth's climate. At the global level, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases have increased sharply since the Industrial Revolution. Fossil fuel burning dominates this increase.

Human-caused increases in greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed global average surface warming of roughly 0.8 C (1.5 F) over the past 140 years. Because natural processes cannot quickly remove some of these gases (notably carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere, our past, present, and future emissions will influence the climate system for millennia.

Extensive, independent observations confirm the reality of global warming. These observations show large-scale increases in air and sea temperatures, sea level, and atmospheric water vapor; they document decreases in the extent of mountain glaciers, snow cover, permafrost, and Arctic sea ice. These changes are broadly consistent with long understood physics and predictions of how the climate system is expected to respond to human-caused increases in greenhouse gases. The changes are inconsistent with explanations of climate change that rely on known natural influences..."

(Emphasis added)


From EPA.gov - Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data
(Retrieved on January 26, 2017):

Click picture to enlarge.

Explained: Greenhouse gases
MIT News - January 2017.

"There's no question that carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to human-caused climate change, so that's the big focus of mitigation efforts. But there are a number of others that are also significant," says Jessika Trancik (...).


Atmospheric CO2 keeps climbing: ---> CLICK FOR .GIF <---
From Robbie Andrew - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
34. barbamz
10:56 PM GMT on January 25, 2017
'Lost in Trumpslation': The trouble of translating 'Trump speak' into French
The Local (France), 20 January 2017
... So whatever your opinion on the new president, spare a thought for French translators.

I certainly will, lol.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
33. BaltimoreBrian
12:26 AM GMT on January 25, 2017
999Ai2016, regarding the Suez Canal I would have thought that ecological damage from invasive species would have happened a long time ago too. However, I remembered that a big expansion of the Suez Canal became operational in 2015 and that may be increasing the impact.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
32. 999Ai2016
11:17 PM GMT on January 24, 2017
*** Erick Fernandes - Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4 C Warmer World Must be Avoided

2015 - Youtube video link
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
31. 999Ai2016
4:59 PM GMT on January 24, 2017
Quoting 30. BaltimoreBrian:

Bioinvasion is jeopardizing Mediterranean marine communities: Non-indigenous organisms introduced through the Suez Canal are causing irreversible damage, say researchers

Interesting, I didn't know about these issues, old and new, and I'd have thought the damage was already done when it comes to the Suez Canal (I did know the Mediterranean sea includes some of the most badly damaged ecosystems in the world - especially but not only underwater). You've surfaced some fascinating articles describing recent research in the last days, BaltimoreBrian. I've added some of them to my other blog. Now that you mention bioinvasions, it's funny because I've just read this from the BAS:

The unintentional exotic-pet bio-attack on US shores
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - August 2016.

Biodiversity loss: An existential risk comparable to climate change
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - April 2016.

(...) The reality is that we are entering the sixth mass extinction in the 3.8-billion-year history of life on Earth, and the impact of this event could be felt by civilization "in as little as three human lifetimes," as the aforementioned 2012 Nature paper notes. Furthermore, the widespread decline of biological populations could plausibly initiate a dramatic transformation of the global ecosystem on an even faster timescale: perhaps a single human lifetime.
The unavoidable conclusion is that biodiversity loss constitutes an existential threat in its own right. As such, it ought to be considered alongside climate change and nuclear weapons as one of the most significant contemporary risks to human prosperity and survival.

And well, as the article you posted suggests, the Mediterranean really didn't need another ecological disaster on top of the previous ones.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
29. 999Ai2016
12:31 PM GMT on January 23, 2017
Ice and the Sky review - a climate change pioneer's passion for Antarctica
The Guardian - December 2015.

This personal and reflective documentary recounts the mission of a pioneering scientist to find evidence of climate change in the ice of the Antarctic.

Youtube link


Climate change issues get digital boost
Climate News Network - January 2017.

Think global warming's a fraud? These scientists want to change your mind
The Columbus Dispatch - January 2017.

An example of a real debate between climate scientists:
The Arctic is showing stunning winter warmth, and these scientists think they know why
The Washington Post - December 2016.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
28. 999Ai2016
9:56 PM GMT on January 22, 2017
Africa - Drought:

Drought in E. Africa leaves millions in need of aid
Deutsche Welle - January 6.

(...) Need to adapt:
Aid organizations say time is running out. They want to tackle the crisis by supplying seed, food aid or water for the livestock. But long-term assistance is also needed. Extreme weather conditions are recurring more often than in the past because of climate change.
"We are trying to find ways to alert the pastoralists to what is happening. They are going to have to adapt to the changing climatic conditions," said development expert Titus Mung'ou from Kenya. That includes stocking up on reserve supplies during the rainy season. Access to seed and fertilizer is also important. "Climate scientists should be working closely with the pastoralists," he said.

Lesson learned? An urgent call for action in the Horn of Africa, January 2017

Funds urgently needed, as Southern Africa enters peak of hunger crisis
ReliefWeb/CARE - January 10.


Chile - Drought/Wildfires:

NASA Worldview - Aqua/Modis (true color), January 22.

* NASA Earth Observatory - Fires Blaze in Chile
NASA Earth Observatory - Natural Hazards.

Worst wildfires in Chile in a decade
Wildfire Today - January 22.

(According to PressTV.it, "Chile's president Michelle Bachelet has ordered extra funds for tackling the flames, which she called the country's worst ever in the past 50 years." Update on January 25.)

(According to Reuters, "We have never seen something of this size, never in Chile's history." (...) President Michelle Bachelet said, as she visited the hard-hit Maule region. Update on January 26.)

The current Mega Drought in Central Chile: Is the future now? (.pdf document, July 2015)
Annual precipitation deficits ranging from 30-70% have afflicted most of central Chile (west coast of South America, 30-40*S) for the last decade, most intensely from 2011 onwards, leading to an unprecedented drought in terms of intensity, spatial and temporal extent. The current 'Mega Drought' stands out not only in the historical record but also in precipitation and stream flow reconstructions for the last 1000 years.
(...) There is a strong suggestion that anthropogenic climate change is partially responsible for the present Mega Drought. Such effect is mostly dynamic, due to the decrease in the westerly winds impinging central Chile. We also note that model-based climate projections for the 21st century consistently indicate a marked drying trend over this region. (...)

Patagonian ice melts as Chile experiences its worst drought on record
SBS.com - December 2016.

Hat tip to barbamz for surfacing this article on the Cat.6 blog:

Deadly wildfire razes entire town in Chile: 'Literally like Dante's Inferno'
The Guardian - January 26, 2017.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
27. 999Ai2016
2:59 PM GMT on January 21, 2017
*** A short history of climate change
Climate Histories - What is this?

New year's resolution to learn more about climate change? Intimidated by much there is to know? Feel like you need some sort of catch up lesson first? This is for you.
Every fortnight I'll post a short story from the history of climate change. It's a story with graphs, but mainly it's a story about the people behind the graphs. The people who first noticed something odd was going on. The weird hobbyists, unsung heroes and accidental visionaries who helped us unravel what we're doing to ourselves. (...)


*** Why 4.5 billion years of fluctuating global temperatures can't explain climate change today
ScienceAlert - January 2017.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
26. 999Ai2016
12:47 PM GMT on January 17, 2017
How Far Can Technology Go To Stave Off Climate Change?
Yale Environment 360 - January 2017.


* Blogger's picks - 9 articles published in 2016 - in random order:

1. Space, Climate Change, and the Real Meaning of Theory
Piers Sellers (1955-2016) for The New Yorker.

2. Greenland is Melting
Elizabeth Kolbert for The New Yorker.

3. The Next Great Famine
Amy Davidson for The New Yorker.

4. Climate change is affecting all life on Earth - and that's not good news for humanity
Brett Scheffers, James Watson for The Conversation.

5. Just 90 companies are accountable for more than 60 percent of greenhouse gases
Dan Drolette Jr for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

6. Crisis on high
Matthew Carney for ABC.

7. NASA Study Solves Two Mysteries About Wobbling Earth
Carol Rasmussen for NASA Earth Science News Team.

8. John Church and the rising ocean
Jo Chandler for The Age.

9. Arctic and Med face hotspot worries
Tim Radford for Climate News Network.

* Other articles that could have made it into this list:

- Groundwater resources around the world could be depleted by 2050s
- Warming is Sending Mountain Glaciers 'Off a Cliff'
- Record losses as global warming worsens
- A Melting Antarctica Could Sink The World's Coastlines Faster Than Predicted
- Biodiversity falls below safe levels globally
- An epic Middle East heat wave could be global warming's hellish curtain-raiser

(links provided in my other blog)


USGS Glaciology on Twitter (January 23, 2017):
"Since Glacier National Park was established (1910) over 2/3 of its glaciers
and about 75% of its glacier area has disappeared."

Image source: USGS, Glacier National Park Archives.

Climate Change is the National Parks' Biggest Challenge
Climate Central - May 2016.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
24. 999Ai2016
5:53 AM GMT on January 12, 2017
Fantastic pics barbamz!
I've seen several especially beautiful sunsets this winter (around Nov/Dec), it made me wonder whether
volcanic eruptions somewhere in the NH were responsible for it
but to my knowledge there doesn't seem to be any connection at all.


Two more songs (acoustic):

Agnes Obel - The Curse:

Youtube link / Song lyrics

Nick Drake - Pink Moon:

Youtube link / Song lyrics
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
23. barbamz
12:38 PM GMT on January 11, 2017
Here at least a good sunset, 999.
IN PICTURES: South-western France treated to spectacular sunset
The Local (France), 10 January 2017
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22. 999Ai2016
10:27 PM GMT on January 08, 2017
Thinking in the Deep: Inside the Mind of an Octopus
NYTimes - Dec 2016.


Climate Change Is the World's Biggest Risk, in 3 Charts
Climate Central - January 2017.

The World Economic Forum surveyed 750 experts on what the most likely and impactful risks facing humanity are in 2017. In a report released Thursday, they ranked extreme weather as the most likely risk and the second-most impactful, trailing only the use of weapons of mass destruction.
Climate change is responsible for driving an increase in the likelihood and intensity of extreme weather events, notably heat waves.
Failing to adapt to or mitigate climate change and a host of other climate-connected risks including water and food crises and involuntary migration also rank in the top 10. (...)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
21. 999Ai2016
4:59 PM GMT on January 03, 2017
Hat tip to LAbonbon for surfacing this excellent read on the main blog, from the AGU Blogosphere:

2016 Ends With Astonishing Warmth and Gloomy News from Antarctica
Dan Satterfield - January 2017.

Antarctic Past Points to Sea Level Threat
FloodList - January 2017.

West Antarctica glaciers observed during an October 2014 NASA Operation IceBridge mission.
Image credit: NASA / Michael Studinger.

Click to expand picture.

For more on these "Gloomy News from Antarctica", see also my other blog. Searching for keywords like "Antarctica" with the help of your browser's searching function is probably the quickest way to find related articles there.


Study: Global warming pushing Arctic closer to point of no return
Digital Journal - 2010.

Paleoclimate Project Shows Arctic Temperatures and Ecosystems Highly Sensitive to Carbon Dioxide Levels
ARCUS - Fall 2010.

A recent study indicates that ground surface temperatures in the Arctic may be more sensitive to the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) than previously thought. Using three independent proxy temperature records from an early Pliocene peat deposit in the Canadian High Arctic, investigators estimate that mean annual temperature of the paleo-arctic environment was 19 C (34 F) warmer than today. While arctic temperatures were significantly warmer during the Pliocene, CO2 levels were only slightly higher than at present. These findings indicate that arctic temperatures are highly sensitive to greenhouse gasses.

Image source: RealClimate - 2016 Temperature Records (January 2017).

See also my other blog.


A Witness to Iran's Intensifying Struggle with Climate Change
The New Yorker - January 2017.

Lake Urmia revisited (see comment 4.).

Fishermen in Kangan, Iran, near the South Pars field, 2016. Click to embiggen.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
20. 999Ai2016
6:50 PM GMT on December 29, 2016
Good to know about Agnes Obel, your Christmas present! I had a nice holiday by the way, and I got to taste several fine French wines & eau-de-vie on the road along with nice (& rich) local cuisine in the countryside (saw beautiful monuments and castles from the Middle Ages as well). Weather was rather cold, not great, but not too bad despite a few showers here and there.
I'm tired of this anticyclone sitting over here forever, I hope we'll get an Atlantic low or two rather soon, to bring both much needed rain and cleaner air to the whole continent...
More fog than snow visible today:

Screenshot made with image from NASA Worldview, click to open larger version.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
19. barbamz
5:20 PM GMT on December 29, 2016
Yeah, thanks, and merry Christmas to you as well, 999! I was a bit worried because you fell silent all the sudden for a such long time! I hope you had recreative holidays.
BTW I bought the CD "Aventine" from Agnes Obel as a Christmas present for my niece. She likes it very much, and so does my sister. So once again thanks for the hint, 999, as I got it from you in here. :-)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
18. 999Ai2016
4:58 PM GMT on December 29, 2016
Hi, and Merry Christmas barbamz ! No I'm fine :). And nobody I know has caught the virus so far. Has the epidemic reached Germany also?

UK - Met Office :
2017: another very warm year for global temperatures

The Met Office global temperature forecast suggests that 2017 will be another very warm year globally but is unlikely to be a new record due to the absence of additional warming from El Nino.

Gavin Schmidt (NASA-GISS) on Twitter (Dec 21) :
"For context, this would make 2017 likely 3rd warmest (after 2016/15) (perhaps 2nd thru 5th) in instrumental record. 3rd yr > 1 C above PI" (Pre-Industrial).

American Geophysical Union (AGU), Dec 15 :
FM16 Press Conference: Explaining extreme events in 2015 from a climate perspective (VIDEO)

The BAMS report (December 2016): Explaining extreme events in 2015 from a climate perspective (.pdf file)


S Australia :

NASA Worldview - Terra/Modis (true color), Dec 28. Click to embiggen.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
17. barbamz
7:56 PM GMT on December 21, 2016
Hope you're not ill, 999?

Flu epidemic sweeps across France one month early
The Local (France), 21 December 2016, 13:26 CET+01:00

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
16. 999Ai2016
10:44 PM GMT on December 15, 2016
Are you looking for a sound, objective assessment of our situation, at the global scale ? Here it is :

World Bank publications - Series: Turn Down the Heat

The Turn Down the Heat reports, prepared for the Word Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, provide snapshots of the latest climate science. The three reports warn that without concerted action, temperatures are on pace to rise to 4 C above pre-industrial times by the end of this century. The first report (2012), looks at the risks of a world 4 C or even 2 C warmer. The second (2013) examines the impact on Africa, South Asia, and South East Asia. The third (2014), finds that about 1.5 C warming is already locked in and explores the impact on Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
15. 999Ai2016
3:14 PM GMT on December 15, 2016
Quoting 13. BaltimoreBrian:

You're welcome 999Ai2016! Historical images from medieval France are not exactly on topic here, but this is too cute for me not to share.

Cute little boarlets from the Livre de la Chasse, 1407. Look at their faces! Mom's looking stern ;)

Very cute ! in fact that is the reason why I have splitted my blog. This one is meant to be larger in scope and open to everyone's comments (or rather, nearly everyone, as I made it clear I would not tolerate climate change denial here, whether it be subtle or not), while from now on the other blog will only host my own comments.
I appreciate yours, and I also needed a place to welcome other people's contributions, digress a bit (hence the word "mainly" in the introduction), and occasionally get some feedback too. Off-topic or not, your comments are always welcome here :-)
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14. 999Ai2016
3:13 PM GMT on December 15, 2016
Re-posting this here. Just an answer to a commenter that expressed doubts on the main blog about the IPCC's conclusions regarding anthropogenic contributions to global warming in their latest report (AR5, 2013)...

The extensive consensus and critically accepted reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007, 2014) made it clear that human-induced climate change is happening. As Dr. Andrew Weaver, a lead author in each of the IPCC's Second, Third and Fourth Scientific Assessment Reports (published in 1996, 2001 and 2007), states "scientists rarely use words like unequivocal, but when they do, they are absolutely certain".

IPCC (AR5, 2013 - Summary for Policy-Makers, pdf) :
"Human influence on the climate system is clear, and recent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are the highest in history. Recent climate changes have had widespread impacts on human and natural systems. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth, and are now higher than ever. This has led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."

1880-2009. Of course both values are now higher (literally off-the-charts actually), CO2 is now above 400 ppm, global temperature has repeatedly set new records since 2009... Image source : University of Illinois.

Science has spoken. There is no ambiguity in the message. Leaders must act. Time is not on our side.
- UN secretary general, Ban Ki-moon (at the release of the latest IPCC report)
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
13. BaltimoreBrian
2:44 AM GMT on December 14, 2016
You're welcome 999Ai2016! Historical images from medieval France are not exactly on topic here, but this is too cute for me not to share.

Cute little boarlets from the Livre de la Chasse, 1407. Look at their faces! Mom's looking stern ;)

Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
12. 999Ai2016
11:29 PM GMT on December 11, 2016
Thanks, LAbonbon ! I'm glad you appreciate it.

Very nice illustrations, BB. Thank you for your comments !
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
11. LAbonbon
10:47 PM GMT on December 11, 2016
Great blog!
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10. BaltimoreBrian
11:50 PM GMT on December 09, 2016
The Little Book of Love: Given by the 16th-century Lyon-born poet Pierre Salas to his then lover and future wife Marguerite Bullioud. More illustrations inside.

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9. 999Ai2016
6:16 PM GMT on November 28, 2016
* Click pictures to display larger version in a new window *

Bolivia - Drought :

NASA Worldview - Terra/Modis (true color), Nov 20.

Bolivian water crisis as glaciers vanish
Climate News Network - November 2016


Sahara Desert - Emi Koussi :

NASA Worldview - Aqua/Modis (true color), Nov 14.

The Highest Volcano in the Sahara
Live Science - 2011.

Emi Koussi (Wikipedia)


California - Drought :

NASA Worldview - Aqua/Modis (true color), Nov 24.

102 million dead California trees "unprecedented in our modern history," officials say
LA Times - November 2016.
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8. 999Ai2016
12:45 PM GMT on November 17, 2016
Climate change "hotspots": why they matter and why we should invest in them
The Conversation - November 16.

The consequences of climate change are already being felt all over the globe. But some regions are particularly affected.
These so-called "hotspots" are areas where strong physical and ecological effects of climate change come together with large numbers of vulnerable and poor people and communities. (...)


Telling the obvious :

The risky promise of "negative emissions":
Why we should not assume that land-based measures will save the climate (.pdf file)

Stocholm Environment Institute - 2016 (policy brief).

Increasingly, models used to study possible mitigation pathways assume that negative emission options will be available at a large scale. Not surprisingly, they find that relying on negative emission options in the comfortably distant future reduces near-term mitigation costs. In the real world, however, this "easier and less expensive" strategy poses fundamental risks, as a growing number of climate scientists have noted. (...)

Even if negative emission options prove to be technically feasible, society may find the ecological and social costs to be unacceptably high, with potentially major adverse impacts on biodiversity, food security, water resources, and human rights. (...)

A review of modelled mitigation pathways suggests that the goal of limiting warming to 2 C or 1.5 C can still be achieved without excessive reliance on negative emissions. This would require immediate global mitigation on a scale that greatly exceeds that which was pledged by nations under the Paris Agreement, as well as protecting land carbon stocks by reversing forest loss and allowing degraded forests to recover. (...)
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7. 999Ai2016
10:02 AM GMT on November 12, 2016
Hat tip to barbamz for surfacing this article on the Category 6 blog:

"It was too hot, even to leave home": stories from the world's hottest year
The Guardian - November 2016.


WMO Press Release - Nov 8.
The global climate 2011-2015: heat records and high impact weather

"(...) This report confirms that the average temperature in 2015 had already reached the 1 C mark. We just had the hottest five-year period on record, with 2015 claiming the title of hottest individual year. Even that record is likely to be beaten in 2016," said WMO Secretary-General Petteri Taalas.

"The effects of climate change have been consistently visible on the global scale since the 1980s: rising global temperature, both over land and in the ocean; sea-level rise; and the widespread melting of ice. It has increased the risks of extreme events such as heatwaves, drought, record rainfall and damaging floods," said Mr Taalas. (...)

Full report by the World Meteorological Organization :
The Global Climate in 2011-2015 (pdf, 5 Mo)

Image credit/source: Alex Hallatt's Arctic Circle.

*** So, What Can I Do?
The Macroscope - September 2016.

A lot of people ask me how they can live more sustainably, and help combat global environmental issues like climate change in their own lives. Here's my advice.


Southeast US - Wildfires :

NASA Worldview - Terra/Modis (true color), Nov 12.


North China - Smog :

November 12, 2016. NASA Worldview - SUOMI-NPP / VIIRS.

*** Lifting the fog on China's unwieldy air pollution problem
EurekAlert/AAAS - January 2017.

Why does China's choking smog persist despite Beijing's clean-up efforts?
South China Morning Post (International Edition) - November 9, 2016.

Chinese residents raise questions as severe air pollution set to worsen
this weekend, affecting more than 30 cities in six provinces.

Hat tip to Xandra for surfacing this new research on the Category 6 blog:

Researchers solve mystery of historic 1952 London fog and current Chinese haze
Science Daily - November 15, 2016.


*** Unraveling the Myriad Causes Of North India's Pollution Pall
Yale Environment 360 - February 2017.
Member Since: December 31, 1969 Posts: Comments:
6. 999Ai2016
3:01 PM GMT on November 11, 2016
North India - Smog :

November 9, 2016. NASA Worldview - SUOMI-NPP / VIIRS.

India May Be Overtaking China As Most Polluted Country
NPR - Nov 24.

*** Delhi a wake-up call for world on air pollution: Unicef
Times of India - November 12.

Air pollution levels in other Indian cities, such as Varanasi and Lucknow, have been equally extreme in recent days. And over the past year, air pollution levels in London, Beijing, Mexico City, Los Angeles and Manila have exceeded international guidelines - in some cases by considerable margin, it said.

As Delhi chokes, farmers defend scorched earth policy
Phys.org - November 13.

A Lesson for India in a Fog So Thick It Could Kill a Cow
New York Times - November 2016.

Hat tip to earthisanocean for surfacing this awesome loop on Category 6 blog:

2016/11/08 - Large amounts of smoke/smog/pollution over northern India - Geocolor HTML5 Loop
Himawari-8 Loop of the Day.


*** Strange Pumping Effect above Asia Threatens the Ozone Layer
Scientific American - October 2016.

A weird phenomenon is happening high above the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas that could prove to be an atmospheric nightmare. Pollutants that gather from India and China in the lowlands around the mountains can be boosted as high as 18 kilometers, reaching the stratosphere - the atmospheric layer directly above the troposphere that contains most of Earth's ozone. That is far higher than aerosols from vehicles, power plants and fires usually reach. Once aerosols are that high they can spread globally, destroy the ozone layer that protects us from ultraviolet radiation and exacerbate global warming, researchers warn.

Until a few years ago "we thought human activities had little impact on the stratosphere," says Jean-Paul Vernier, a remote-sensing expert at the NASA Langley Research Center. Scientists had previously thought only volcanoes could eject aerosols - tiny particles or droplets - to such heights. And most models looking at future climate change scenarios did not account for aerosols in the stratosphere.


Rare ring-of-fire eclipse over Africa
Eumetsat - September 2016.
On September 1 a rare "ring-of-fire" double eclipse occurred over Africa. Meteosat-10 captured the shadow as the satellite passed over the continent :

Source/credit : Eumetsat 2016 (see link above).

Coincidentally, the shadow passed over the Rwenzori mountains, also known as the "Mountains of the Moon".

Rwenzori Mountains. Image credit: Agripio at Wikipedia English.

Documenting things that are disappearing from climate change and human activity
Iceland Magazine - November 2016.
American photographer Justin Benttinen : "I am starting work on a project to document things that are disappearing from climate change and human activity," he explains and adds, "The aim is to create books of the photos designed to last a thousand years so that people of the future can know what we were like even if industrial civilization has a setback for 50 or a 100 years and all of our digital files are lost."
(...) Benttinen explains that he is still forming the schedule for the things he wants to capture.
"But I am definitely interested in making ice an important part of my work. I think that equatorial ice, such as that found on the Rwenzori mountains on the border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda would be a very important choice as this might be gone within a few decades. So volume one very well could be ice of the equator."


(Brian, I've added Anthropocene Magazine to my links above too. Thanks for that one, and also for this article, Safety fears rock France's nuclear power base. I'm not happy to learn that we have to burn yet more coal to generate our electricity but hey, "safety first" :-/).
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5. BaltimoreBrian
12:00 AM GMT on November 11, 2016
Safety fears rock France's nuclear power base
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999Ai2016's Global Climate Change Blog

About 999Ai2016

Living in France. Interested in severe/extreme weather, climate change, and cyclones.

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